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Updated 23 November 2023 | Approved By

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Endometriosis – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Endometriosis is a medical condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. This can lead to various complications, including chronic pelvic pain, fertility issues, and the formation of adhesions and scar tissue. Management strategies often involve a combination of medication, hormonal therapy, and, in some cases, surgical intervention to alleviate symptoms and improve the overall well-being of individuals with endometriosis. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, about 1 in 10 women have endometriosis during their reproductive years. Certain factors, like family history, starting menstruation early, or delaying pregnancy, may increase the risk of developing this condition. Knowing these factors helps in early detection and management, ensuring better outcomes and improved well-being for those dealing with endometriosis. At 24-7MedCare, we provide accessible healthcare services, including virtual consultations, to assist individuals with endometriosis. Our experienced GPs can offer guidance, diagnosis, and treatment options within the convenience of your own home.

What is Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a complex and often debilitating medical condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium, grows outside the uterus. As a result, the formation of lesions, adhesions, and occasionally cysts outside the uterus can occur. These abnormal growths can cause inflammation, pain, and structural changes in the affected areas. This abnormal tissue growth can cause a range of symptoms and significantly impact a woman's physical and emotional well-being.

Endometriosis: Symptoms and Signs

Understanding the symptoms and signs is crucial for early detection and effective management of this prevalent yet often misunderstood condition. Key indicators that may point to endometriosis will be outlined below:
  • Pelvic pain and discomfort, especially during the menstrual cycle
  • Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
  • Painful intercourse
  • Infertility issues
  • Gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms
  • Bloating
  • Urinary urgency


Causes of Endometriosis

Understanding the origins of endometriosis requires an investigation into its underlying causes. This analysis encompasses factors such as genetic predispositions, hormonal dynamics, retrograde menstruation, immune system interactions, and potential environmental influences [2].
  • Genetic Factors: Genetics plays a role in predisposing individuals to endometriosis. Family history can be a crucial factor in influencing the likelihood of developing the condition.
  • Retrograde Menstruation: Retrograde menstruation, where menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows backwards into the pelvic cavity, is considered a leading factor in the development of endometriosis.
  • Immune System Dysfunction: An impaired immune response may allow endometrial cells to survive and thrive in abnormal locations, contributing to the progression of endometriosis.
  • Hormonal Influences: Hormonal fluctuations, particularly oestrogen dominance, can influence the growth and activity of endometrial tissue outside the uterus.
  • Environmental Factors: While the exact environmental triggers are still under investigation, certain factors, such as exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, may contribute to the development or exacerbation of endometriosis.


Endometriosis Diagnosis and Tests

Diagnosing endometriosis involves a thorough process where doctors consider your symptoms, conduct a physical examination, and use medical imaging such as ultrasounds. In some cases, a small camera, called a laparoscope, might be used for a detailed look inside your abdomen to confirm the presence and extent of endometriosis [3]. This careful approach helps doctors determine the most effective ways to manage and improve your well-being if endometriosis is diagnosed.

Medical History and Symptom Assessment

A comprehensive medical history, including a detailed symptom assessment, is crucial in identifying potential cases of endometriosis. A pelvic examination may also help detect abnormalities, such as tender nodules or masses, which may indicate the presence of endometrial growths.

Imaging Studies

Imaging studies, such as ultrasound and MRI, provide visual confirmation of endometriotic lesions and help guide further diagnostic and treatment decisions.


Laparoscopic surgery is often performed to visually confirm and diagnose endometriosis. It allows for direct visualization and, in some cases, simultaneous treatment during the same procedure.

Endometriosis Treatment

Treating endometriosis involves a variety of approaches designed to alleviate symptoms and improve overall well-being. From medications and hormonal therapies to surgical interventions [3], these methods address the unique challenges posed by endometriosis, aiming to enhance the quality of life for individuals affected by the condition.

Endometriosis Medications

Various medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can help manage the pain associated with endometriosis.

Hormonal Therapy

Hormonal treatments, such as birth control pills or GnRH agonists, aim to regulate menstrual cycles and alleviate symptoms.


Laparoscopic surgery can help to remove endometrial growths, providing relief from symptoms and improving fertility prospects. In severe cases, a hysterectomy, involving the removal of the uterus, may be considered a last resort, especially for individuals not planning to conceive in the future.

Lifestyle Changes

Dietary modifications, such as adopting an anti-inflammatory diet, may help reduce symptoms and improve overall well-being. Additionally, regular exercise and stress reduction techniques play a vital role in managing endometriosis symptoms and promoting overall health.

Endometriosis Complications

Endometriosis can give rise to several complications [4]. Recognizing and addressing these complications is vital for a comprehensive approach to managing endometriosis and improving the overall quality of life for those affected.
  • Chronic Pelvic Pain: Persistent and debilitating pain in the pelvic region is a common complication of endometriosis, affecting daily life and well-being.
  • Fertility Issues: Endometriosis can lead to fertility challenges, making conception more difficult for some individuals.
  • Adhesions and Scar Tissue: The condition may result in the formation of adhesions and scar tissue, potentially causing organs to stick together and impacting normal functioning.
  • Emotional Distress: Dealing with the physical symptoms and uncertainties associated with endometriosis can contribute to emotional distress, affecting mental health.
  • Impact on Relationships: Managing endometriosis can strain relationships due to the physical and emotional toll it takes on individuals and their partners.




  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2023). Endometriosis in Australia. Retrieved from 
  2. Viganò, P., Parazzini, F., Somigliana, E., & Vercellini, P. (2004). Endometriosis: epidemiology and aetiological factors. Best practice & research Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology, 18(2), 177-200.
  3. Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. (2006). [Title of the document]. Retrieved from 
  4. Zullo, F., Spagnolo, E., Saccone, G., Acunzo, M., Xodo, S., Ceccaroni, M., & Berghella, V. (2017). Endometriosis and obstetrics complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertility and sterility, 108(4), 667-672.